Tungnaárjökull Glacier: Size, Ice Caves, Cap and Volcanoes

Tungnaárjökull Glacier is one of the 269 glaciers of Iceland. It is located on the western side of Vatnajökull south of Iceland. The size of the Tungnaárjökull Glacier is 17 kilometers wide. The height of the glacier has an elevation of 1,095 meters. The glacier is a wide and lobelike glacier of Vatnajökull. Its coordinates are 64.3186° N and 18.0222° W. Tungnaárjökull Glacier is also called Tungnárjöklar or Tungnárjökull in Iceland

Tungnaárjökull Glacier is one of the several outlet glaciers in the country of Iceland. The marginal zone of Tungnaárjökull Glaciers covers the area of its maximum extent during its Little Ice Age up to its current edge. 

The cities around Tungnaárjökull Glaciers are Hveragerði, Eyrarbakki, Selfoss, Stokkseyri, Hella, Hvolsvöllur, Vestmannaeyjar, Vἰk, Kirkjubœjarklaustur. In Southern Iceland, Tungnaárjökull is surrounded by mountains and volcanic ridges. One of the ridges surrounding Tungnaárjökull is the Jökulgrindur volcanic ridges. Most of the volcanic ridges are visible both in the relief of the forefield and in the morphology of the surface of the glacier. Tungnaárjökull Glacier is located in the south of Iceland as an outlet glacier of Vatnajökull. The distance from Reykjavík to Tungnaárjökull is 190 km via airplane. 

What is the Size of the Tungnaárjökull Glacier?

The size of Tungnaárjökull Glacier is 17 km wide and it is 1,095 high. It is an outlet glacier that stretches from the western part of Vatnajökull. Tungnaárjökull Glacier is south of Skaftárjökull and north of Sylgjujökull. Its marginal zone is 25 km long that extends up to 1.2 km in the northern part of its forefield and 2.5 km from the center to the southern part of its forefield. The size of Tungnaárjökull Glacier is due to the meltwater of the biggest glacier mass and ice cap in Iceland which is known as the Vatnajökull. 

What are the Volcanoes in Tungnaárjökull Glacier?

The volcano in Tungnaárjökull Glacier is Grἰmsvötn. There are 130 volcanoes surrounding the country of Iceland. Iceland has 32 active volcanoes. One of the active volcanoes in Iceland is Grἰmsvötn. It is the most active volcanic system in Iceland that is near the Tungnaárjökull Glacier. During the early era of Iceland, the tephra record in Tungnaárjökull Glacier doubled from the number of eruptions known to originate in Grἰmsvötn. In the 17th century, an increase in volcanic eruptions contributed to the tephra record for Tungnaárjökull Glacier. Eventually, its frequency of volcanic eruptions slowed down by the mid 15th century. 

What is the prominence of Tungnaárjökull Glacier in Icelandic Culture?

The prominence of Tungnaárjökull is the identification of landforms around the area of Tungnaárjökull. Landforms like these include preserved shorelines, small wave-cut platforms, fossil deltas, and kame terraces. These discoveries are connected to the ice-dammed lakes of Iceland. The ice-dammed lakes are the result of Tungnaárjökull damming the outflow of melted water between the snout of Tungnaárjökull and the volcanic ridge of Jökulgrindur. 

Part of the Iceland Culture is to protect Tungnaárjökull as it is one of the national parks of Iceland. National parks are protected areas of Iceland since they are unique areas that are part of Iceland’s cultural heritage. Iceland’s culture is diverse and has close ties to the ancient Vikings. The glaciers in Iceland are part of the country’s identity. 

What are the Similar Glaciers in Iceland to Tungnaárjökull Glaciers?

Similar glaciers in Iceland to Tungnaárjökull Glacier are listed below:

  • Sὀlheimajökull: It is an outlet glacier In Iceland from the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap. This glacier covers a basin that reaches 100 meters below sea level. The Sὀlheimajökull glacier’s coverage is a few kilometers inside the present ice margin. This glacier now is retreating at approximately 100 meters/year that means after a few decades, an ice lake will form in front of Sὀlheimajökull. 
  • Breiðamerkurjökull:  Breiðamerkurjökull is an outlet glacier located in the southern part of Vatnajökull. This glacier occupies sub-glacial valleys that may reach below sea level. The glacial retreat of the Breiðamerkurjökull glacier resulted in a glacial lake formation that serves as its border in Iceland. 
  • Múlajökull: It is an outlet glacier from the Hofsjökull ice cap located in the central highlands of Iceland. 

Gἰgjökull or Falljökull: Gἰgjökull or Falljökull is an outlet glacier from the Eyjafjallajökull ice cap. It is an outlet glacier that can be classified as ice fall, which means IceFall Glacier.

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